Yes, that type of flow, where the ASP.NET Core application handles SAML SSO and there's redirects etc between the ASP.NET Core application and the Angular application, will work.
The ExampleWebApi and Angular apps that we ship and that are documented in the Examples Guide do something similar. The ExampleWebApi handles the SAML SSO. Once SSO completes, it returns a JWT to the Angular app which is then sent when making web API calls. However, you can use whatever token type you wish to return to the Angular app.